Travelling To and In Antarctica – Modes of Transport

How To Travel To and In Antarctica

There are two choices for mode of transport when traveling to Antarctica either as a tourist or to work there. It’s either by ship or aeroplane, however ship is by far the most popular, particularly for tourist cruises and voyages.

Aeroplanes are difficult and risky to get to Antarctica and they are usually reserved for trips by Personnel working there or for emergencies. The main difficulty being weather related, the aeroplane must be able to carry enough fuel to do a return trip on one tank in case it has to turn back due to not being able to land.

The trusty sea going ship is still by far the most popular, and I have to admit it is by far the most entertaining – if you don’t suffer from sea sickness. Most Antarctica tourism operators hire ice breakers or ice strengthened ships to get you there, there is definitely nothing else like seeing the ice edge as you enter the pack ice belts surrounding the Antarctica continent, and watching those massive ice bergs float silently past as a majestic albatross circles the deck above, and the occasional whale blows out a jet of water from its spout. Yep it is a once in a lifetime experience.

So once you are there how do you get around? What modes of transport are available for tourists visiting the great white ‘Deep South’ – Antarctica? Here is a brief list of transport used in Antarctica and why!

Modes of Transport in Antarctica

    • IRB’s Inflatable Rubber Boats. Probably the most versatile and most fun way to get around in Antarctica. They are used to get from ship to shore but also for sight seeing cruises around the Antarctic coast and Islands. They are however probably one of the most coldest (coolest) ways to get around. Basically you are open to the elements and the faster you go the greater the wind chill factor, however with the correct clothing and conditions they are the best way to see the splendour of the Antarctic coast, Icebergs and wildlife.
    • Quad Bikes, they are the IRB of the ice. Quad bikes are used extensively by Antarctica bases personnel. Probably not so popular amongst tourists unless you take your own, however they are versatile, all terrain vehicles, but unfortubnately again they are open to the elements. You can however get heated Helmets and Handlebars to take the chill away from the most vulnerable areas.
    • Skidoos, not as versatile as Quad Bikes but better in heavy snow conditions. Most bases and stations will have Skidoos but would not be that popular amongst tourist operators.
    • Hagglunds all terrain vehicles. If you get to visit an Antarctic base or station then chances are you will get to ride in one of these babies. They are extremely loud, slow and uncomfortable, but they are a safe warm way to get around, and they float should you have the unfortunate experience of breaking through the ice!
    • Walking or Hiking – a great way to get around and save the planet from green house gasses. For some Antarctic locations and bases that is the only way to get around on dry land/ice. At Macquarie Island this was the only mode of transport on the island but it was a great way to experience the sheer majesty of the place and the awesome wildlife.
    • Helicopter or Chopper – Most Antarctic stations and bases will have a helicopter either permanently or for the summer season to facilitate transport for scientists and during re-supplies. They are a quick and relatively easy way to get around, however they do require a number of resources including radio operators for operations, fuel caches and good weather. Some of the larger tour operators will have helicopters for emergencies and possibly for “jollies” for the tourists. Again if you are fortunate to visit a station with a helicopter you may even get a freebie ride!
  • Light propeller aeroplane. Again some Antarctic stations have light aeroplanes as a mode of transport, particularly for travelling from base to base and for scientists research where long distances need to be covered. They also require a number of resources such as radio operators, fuel caches and good weather.

That about covers it, there are other modes of transport in Antarctica but they would be for specific tasks such as tractors, bulldozers and even utilities for around the stations and bases.

So if you are fortunate enough to travel to Antarctica make the most of it and see one of the last unspoiled frontiers on this world, but please leave it that way!

Transportation Services and Modes of Transport

In human evolution, the earliest means of transport were walking, running and swimming. Before the Industrial Revolution and modernization, water transport was the most efficient method of transporting large quantities of goods over long distances though it was very slow and expensive. The importance of water transport led to the growth of cities along rivers and sea-shores where boats, canoes and ships could dock.

The domestication of animals and the invention of the sled gave way to early animal transport services. Horses and oxen were used from as early as 3000 BC to transport goods and humans and traveled over dirt tracks. Later civilizations such as the Mesopotamian and the Indus Valley built paved roads for easier transport.

The Industrial Revolution of the 19th century turned transportation on its head. It was the age of many inventions that fundamentally changed the concept of transport. Communication, telegraphy, the steam engine and the steam ship sped global transport in all directions. Land transport became possible over large distances without the application of animal or human muscles. The Wright brothers’ successful experiments with aircraft paved the way for airplanes and air transport became a faster way to transport goods and people in shorter time-frames to further destinations.

Modes of transport

A ‘mode of transport’ is a method or solution that uses a particular type of infrastructure, operation and vehicle to transport people and cargo. A mode can be used by itself or in conjunction with several other modes; in this case it is referred to ‘intermodal’ or ‘multimodal’ transport. Each is distinct from the other and is used based on choice of factors like cost of transport, route taken, capability and so on.

1. Human-powered – this is the most common in developing and under-developed countries because of several factors like savings on cost, accessibility of location, physical exercise and environmental reasons. Human-powered transport is a sustainable form of transport and has recently been enhanced by the use of machinery and modern technology – e.g. cycling, skating, rowing, skiing which are extremely useful in difficult environments.

2. Animal-powered – whether ridden by humans or used as pack animals for movement of people and commodities, animals can work alone or in teams – e.g. mules, horse-carts, dog-sleds etc.

3. Air – airplanes and aircraft have reduced travel times considerably and is the fastest mode of passenger and goods transport. High costs and high energy use are the downsides of air transport; however, it is estimated that over 500,000 people travel in aero-planes at any given time.

4. Rail – Railroads and rail tracks run the length and breadth of every country in the world ferrying people and goods from place to place. Although they involve the use of large amounts of surface land, rail networks provide easy connectivity options within cities, within countries and between different countries as a mode of public transport- e.g. New York City Subway, London Metro, Eurotunnel or the Chunnel between England and France and the Euro Rail.

5. Road – road networks pass through cities, towns and villages and provide better connectivity options in addition to city rail networks and are ideal for public transport also. Road transport is entirely different from other modes as it allows a vehicle user to have complete freedom over speed, direction, timings of travel and change of location that other transport methods cannot provide. They require large surface areas, use high energy and are quite expensive.

6. Water – water transport includes barges, boats, sailboats and ships through canals, rivers and seas. The earliest boats and ships were routed through inland canals for transporting people and spices. Today large passenger and cargo ships provide an organized and efficient transportation method. Although the time involved is long, water transportation is significantly less expensive than air or road.

Other less used modes include cable and pipeline transports which are specifically purpose oriented – e.g. liquids and gases, water, sewage etc. for pipeline transport and conveyor belts, aerial tramways, cable cars etc. for cable transport.

All transport services involve three common elements – infrastructure such as terminals and facilities, operations that include government and private agencies and vehicles which are specifically made for the purpose.

Facts About Public Transport in Berlin

Berlin, the capital city of Germany, is famous worldwide for its historical sites, art museums and beautiful architectural structures. Travellers love to go to Berlin because aside from enjoying the fabulous tourist spots, the city has an amazing public transport system, which enables the visitors to explore the whole city. Aside from that, public transport Berlin is convenient for all tourists because the public transportation staff underwent language training, thus they can speak in English for the convenience of the travellers.

The biggest public transport system in Berlin is called Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), and is known as the best mode of transportation when touring around the city. It has a three zone system which is interconnected, and requires you to give only one ticket when you ride the bus to underground, to surface rail and to tram.

The underground network in Berlin does not have ticket barriers. However, it is important that before travelling, your ticket must be validated. There are several spot checks along the way, and you would not want to get caught by the transport officials. So to be sure, you need to validate your ticket in the validating machine before you travel around.

BVG makes sure that tourists are having a fun time in exploring the city. Even during night time, many locals and travellers from all over the world ride the public transport Berlin because of the convenience and comfort that it brings. BVG continues to improve the services and facilities to keep the public transport system a success.

The second biggest transport service in the city is known as S-Bahn Berlin GmBH. It has fifteen lines and can transport daily of more than a million passenger. Just like BVG, S-Bahn Berlin makes sure that it provides excellent service to its passengers. And to encourage the use of buses and trains, it continuously improves its facilities and services. It also uses sulphur free diesel in order to promote a clean and healthy environment.

Another great way of getting around the city is through taxi. Taxi cabs can be found in airports, hotels, and all the main stations of Berlin. But if you want to drive around to explore the wonderful sites, you can use a car. The great thing about Berlin is that it has wide and long roads that are best for driving. And if traffic is your concern, you do not need to worry about it because the city has civilized traffic, so there are no traffic issues.

Now if you want to go around by bicycle, you will definitely have a fun time exploring the city. Berlin highly recommends cycling because aside from being easy to use, it is safe as well. There are various cycle lanes and they are separated from the cars to keep the cyclists isolated from the vehicles, hence you can be assured that driving your bicycle is safe.

Staying in Berlin is definitely a great way to enjoy your vacation. Travellers love to come back to this beautiful city because aside from the fabulous tourist spots and architectural structures, public transport Berlin is great and is a big help in making the tourists easily explore the whole city.

Group Transportation Helps Reduce Environmental Impact

It seems that, in recent years, Americans are taking a more active approach in helping to reduce their impact on the environment. One of the most effective ways for an individual to assist in these efforts is to participate in group transportation. It is estimated that more than eleven billion miles are driven each day across the United States, totaling more than four trillion each year. A vast majority of that travel is due to shopping, errands, and social outings while the remaining (estimating) fifteen percent is all driving is spent commuting to and from school and work. Cutting back on the amount each individual drives, replacing it with group transportation options such as shuttle buses, not only cuts back on the individual cost associated with travel but also reduces their environmental footprint. Group transportation is, after all, the greenest way to travel.

It’s a well known fact that vehicles can pose dangers for the environment. Vehicles emit a mixture of octanes, compounds, hydrogen, and carbon and, because there is no practical filter for carbon dioxide, these gases remain in the environment and contribute to ozone depletion, smog and acid rain, global warming, and other dangers. Utilizing group transportation services reduces the energy use and emissions. In fact, studies show that shuttle buses emit the least carbon dioxide, per passenger, into the environment compared to other forms of transportation. Not only that but they’re also among the safest forms of surface transportation currently on the market.

Vehicle accidents are among the leading killer of American adults each year and are the most dangerous form of transportation. An estimated thirty thousand people suffer vehicular fatalities each year in the United States. With the sheer number of people on the road, these statistics aren’t shocking. Regardless, however, it’s still prudent to take vehicle safety seriously. Studies indicate that majority of daytime short distance travel occurs during the lunchtime hours, usually on Fridays. That being said, it would make sense to capitalize on the safer option of providing group travel from large corporations to shopping centers and restaurants during the busy lunchtime rush.

Group transportation is the safest and greenest way to travel and can cut back on many expenses associated with everyday life for consumers. With the number of drivers, amount of time they spend on the road, and the reasons they have for traveling, shuttle bus services in larger, more densely populated areas, makes sense. They’re better for the environment, safer for consumers, and can make a deep and long lasting impact on society.

Positives and Negatives of Each Transport

Traveling around the world can be accomplished by many different transports. Each one of them possesses some positives and negatives. One part can conduct more comfort, other less spent money, but in the end, every person chooses his or her own way. Hence, according to your desires and understandings, you have to pick the one, which will be best for you. What I can do henceforth, is to show you all existing benefits and drawbacks of each transport.

To begin with, I would like to offer the fastest one conceivable transportation, the aircraft. There isn’t any other way of traveling which can provide such quickness when taking you to the desired resort than the airplane. Moreover, this isn’t the only convenience. During the flight you will be serviced kindly and cautiously from the air staff. Unlike some other transports you will have personal seat as well as at least one meal. Additionally, you won’t be restricted to go the toilet whenever the co-driver decides, something possible in other kinds of transports, where there are no pilots, but drivers. What is more, you will be a witness of one of the most remarkable views. Through the small plane’s window you will be able to enjoy the exciting aspect of which the Earth is seen and more specifically its lands, seas and oceans. Interest for you will be even the size of the buildings noticed from so many kilometers height. If we can reckon that for a drawback, you won’t be able to be amongst the Mother Nature down on the ground.

In the second place, I want to introduce another favorite to me transport, the bus. Here we can find many pluses as well. Although most of the people do not like traveling by bus because of the crowded environment, this is the perfect place to make new friendships. For instance, there will be an opportunity to create a strong bond with foreign people. I am confident about this because the trip is neither quite short nor very prolonged. I mean that you will have sufficient time to get along with different people thanks to the boredom, which can be generated. But this isn’t all. Thanks to the fact that you are not the driver, which can be a possible option if you travel by car, you can catch and even picture each landmark on your way to the final point. For some people the most important characteristic of traveling is the price. Congratulations, this is the cheapest one conceivable. Every person can afford it.

There are other transports like the car and the train, but they do not deserve to be used for long distance. The only reason in which they can be profitable is if they are means for traveling in your own country.